Vegan diet impacts incretin and insulin in type 2 diabetes patients, study suggests
The new findings suggests clinical applications of vegan diets for improvement of beta-cell function and diabetes treatment, according to researchers.
The randomised crossover study, published in Nutrients, compared the responses of 20 men aged 30 to 65 diagnosed with T2D to energy-matched vegan and non-vegan burger meals.
Researchers tracked their improvement via glucose response monitoring and beta-cell function.
Findings revealed the secretion of insulin, C-peptide, and amylin increased more after the vegan meal than the standard meal. Beta-cell function parameters also improved after the vegan meal.
The report states that a“Single plant-based meal can increase postprandial insulin secretion, which has direct implication for diabetes treatment. Preserving the capacity of beta-cells to produce insulin according to changing need is a cornerstone in the treatment of diabetes.
“Insulin secretion and beta-cell function may be improved by different treatment options that lower body fat (such as diet and exercise, GLP-1 agonists, or bariatric surgery) or change fat distribution (such as thiazolidinediones).
“As medications and bariatric surgery are expensive and introduce potential side effects, lifestyle interventions should be the first-choice treatment.
“It has been demonstrated that a 16-week vegan diet improves insulin resistance and beta-cell function in overweight individuals, addressing both core pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in diabetes at the same time.”
The researchers note that plant-foods are naturally rich in fibre, which may have influenced postprandial insulin levels.
They also point out that micronutrients, such as zinc, polyphenols, and other phytochemicals may also have played their positive role in postprandial incretin and insulin secretion.
Hormones and diabetes
Gastrointestinal hormones play a key role in glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, satiety, and regulation of body weight.
Incretin hormones, namely glucagon-like peptide -1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), which are released from the small intestine in response to nutrient ingestion to enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion, aid in the overall maintenance of glucose homeostasis.
Furthermore, GLP-1 , and amylin play a role in energy intake through appetite regulation.
Plant diet studies
Previous studies have shown a plant-based diet can help support the mood of people with type 2 diabetes
A 19-year study in 2017 suggested that those consuming diets rich in vegetable proteins have reduced levels of type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to those consuming similar protein quantities from meat.
A 16-week plant-based diet intervention study last year found this diet led to increases in meal-stimulated insulin secretion and pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensitivity in overweight adults. Compared with controls, the plant-based diet group also had lower fasting insulin resistance and decreased fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels.
Published online ahead of print, doi: 10.3390/nu11030486“A plant-based meal stimulates incretin and insulin secretion more than an energy- and macronutrient-matched standard meal in type 2 diabetes: a randomized crossover study.“
Authors: Kahleova H, Tura A, Klementova M, et al.