Polyphenol-rich extracts from grape seed has potential as a natural antioxidant in chicken meat, and could reduce the pro-oxidative effects of salt, suggests new research.
Adding 0.1 per cent of the extract to ground chicken meat reduced the lipid oxidation in processed meat that can lead to the formation of off-odours associated, says the research published in the Journal of Food Science.
"This study shows that GSE is an effective antioxidant in ground chicken thigh meat that does not affect moisture content or pH during storage, inhibits TBARS formation, helps to mitigate the pro-oxidative effects of NaCl, and may alter the effect of NaCl on protein solubility in salted chicken patties," wrote Robert Brannan from the School of Human and Consumer Sciences at Ohio University.
The extract could be a natural alternative to artificial additives, such as like butylhydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluene (BHT).
According to a 2003 report by Frost and Sullivan, the synthetic antioxidant market is in decline, while natural antioxidants, such as herb extracts, tocopherols (vitamin E) and ascorbates (vitamin C) are growing, pushed by consumer desire acceptance and easier market access.
Brennan prepared the ground meat with 0.1 per cent grape seed extract (Gravinol-S) and in the presence or absence of salt (one per cent NaCl), and subsequently refrigerated at 59, 76, 88, and 99 relative humidity for as long as 12 days.
At the end of this, the level of lipid oxidation - measured using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay - was affected by the degree of humidity across all the groups, as well as salt content.
"Ground chicken thigh patties treated with 0.1 per cent GSE with or without NaCl (0.54 and 0.72 micromol/kg, respectively) exhibited significantly lower TBARS values than the control (1.35 micromol/kg) while patties treated with NaCl alone (1.90 micromol/kg) exhibited significantly increased TBARS values compared to the untreated control," wrote Brennan.
The extract was also found to delay the reduction of water activity during refrigeration, compared to the untreated control, but had no effect on moisture content or pH compared to the untreated control.
"As promising as these results are, additional research will be required to determine how the physicochemical interactions of GSE reported in this study and previous studies affect important cooked meat quality attributes (colour, texture, flavour) and nutritional quality, especially in regard to the level, form, and health-promoting functionality of residual GSE in the meat after processing," concluded Brannan.
The research adds to previous reports of the potential of grape seed extract for use as an antioxidant in meat products. Researchers from the University of Illinois reported I the Journal of Food Science that adding the phenolic-rich grape-seed extract at a concentration of 0.02 per cent reduced the formation of off-odours associated with lipid oxidation in processed meat without affecting the colour of the product.
Source: Journal of Food Science Volume 73, Issue 1, Pages C36-C40, doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00588.x
"Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Physicochemical Properties of Ground, Salted, Chicken Thigh Meat during Refrigerated Storage at Different Relative Humidity Levels"
Author: R.G. Brannan