Maize flours with coarser particle size are the most suitable for making gluten-free bread, a study finds.
The study published in the Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture found that the type of maize flour – mainly its particle size – significantly influenced the dough development of gluten-free bread.
Findings showed that different particle sizes in maize flour influenced final bread volume and texture – with coarser flour ensuring the most favourable gluten-free loaves.
“In general the coarser maize flours provide breads with more volume and less firmness than the finer flour breads, due to the higher availability of dough to retain the gas produced during fermentation and increase its volume,” the researchers said.
Three flours from three different types of maize were used to obtain different fractions – a maize flour from yellow maize, semolina from yellow maize and a flour from white maize.
These were then used in two different gluten-free formulations - with the proportion of water 80% and 110%.
Among the different types of flours investigated, findings showed that those with more compact particles, especially when combined with greater particle size, created higher bread volumes.
Findings showed that semolina from yellow maize gave the largest increase to volumes, and white maize flour the least.
“Finer flours had a lower dough development during fermentation in all cases,” the researchers said.
Maize flour in gluten-free bread
“Maize, one of the suitable grains for celiac consumption is, together with rice, the most cultivated cereal in the world,” the researchers said. This, they said, prompted the study into its impact the quality in gluten-free bread.
The study noted that factors beyond flour particle size influenced the adequacy of maize flour in gluten-free formulations, such as the variety and milling process. “These factors should be studied in greater depth.”
Source: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Published online ahead of print, doi: 10.1002/jsfa.5826
“Influence of maize flour particle size on gluten-free breadmaking”
Authors: E. De La Hera, M. Talegón, P. Caballero and M. Gómez