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International salt reduction: Local tailoring is crucial, warn researchers

2 commentsBy Kacey Culliney , 20-Sep-2013
Last updated on 20-Sep-2013 at 15:05 GMT2013-09-20T15:05:57Z

'While some aspects of salt reduction can be globally implemented, local tailoring is required to match level of interest in salt reduction,' study finds
'While some aspects of salt reduction can be globally implemented, local tailoring is required to match level of interest in salt reduction,' study finds

Understanding and behaviours on salt consumption differ hugely from market to market across the globe – something manufacturers must take heed of when reducing levels, researchers warn.

A study published in the Journal Appetite, and presented at the 20th International Congress of Nutrition this week in Spain, found that while there were many common ideas about salt consumption and reduction among international consumers, some varied significantly.

The researchers said it would be crucial for manufacturers to have an understanding of salt intake behaviours in each market if salt reduction efforts on a global scale are to be effective.

“Strategies to reduce salt intake must raise interest in engaging in salt reduction through improving understanding of intake levels and dietary sources of salt,” they said.

“Moreover, while some aspects of salt reduction can be globally implemented, local tailoring is required to match level of interest in salt reduction.”

When developing salt reduction strategies, they said the state of change in each country must be understood – are consumers already open to change or do they first need to be educated and engaged?

A large slice of global population ‘not interested’ in salt reduction 

Global consumers think salt reduction is healthy but one-third aren't interested in taking action

Global consumers think salt reduction is healthy but one-third aren't interested in taking action

While salt reduction was considered healthy and important by most participants, over one-third were not interested in salt reduction.

“This highlights that interventions need to take into account which stage of change the majority of the country’s population is in, and adapt strategies accordingly, whether to focus on increasing awareness, or motivation,” the researchers wrote.

However, there was a portion (16%) that said they were interested in making changes in the next six months.

China and Brazil were most open to change – 83% in China and 81% in Brazil either wanted or were active in changing their salt intake. In contrast, participants in Germany/Austria had the least interest in change – with 52% stating they had no intentions to change dietary habits in the next six months.

Misperceptions – a global issue

One international similarity across the globe was that consumers from every country had a misperception of their own salt intake, the main sources of intake in the diet and about what the current recommendations were. 

Globally, consumers all have the same misperceptions on sal

Globally, consumers all have the same misperceptions on salt

“There were pervasive misperceptions surrounding the main sources of salt in the diet of the general population. Whereas on average most participants thought that the majority of salt in the diet comes from salt added during cooking, based on the intake data processed food was on average the highest contributor of salt to the diet,” the researchers said.

Knowledge on salt intake recommendations was also generally low. However, the highest level of understanding was observed in China where 34% of the population knew the recommendations. US participants were mostly unaware of recommendations.

“Further education on salt intake recommendations, and main sources of salt intake (particularly those that are hidden sources), is warranted,” the researchers said.

Who is responsible for salt intake? 

Participants were aware of the role manufacturers played in their salt intake, but had less focus on the role governments and international organisations played.  

Most participants embraced the idea that they were most responsible for their own salt intake – a “noteworthy finding”, the researchers said, as it holds promise for consumers adopting change.

Participants also flagged food manufacturers, restaurants, fast food chains, caterers, supermarkets, local shops, family and friends as others responsible.

Consumers do want to learn more about salt intake and sources, mainly online or via TV

Consumers do want to learn more about salt intake and sources, mainly online or via TV

Take heed: What a consumer wants…

“Participants had clear ideas on what, from whom and how they wanted to learn about the importance of salt reduction, and advantage should be taken of these insights to ensure that people are motivated to pay attention to the communications,” the researchers said.

Most said they wanted to know more about why salt was bad for them and what the main sources in the diet are.

Just over a third (35%) said they would like to hear this from the medical community and 22% said they wanted to know this from food packaging labels.

China, a country that considered governments to hold responsibility in salt consumption, wanted to hear more from governmental organisations.

Television, online social websites like blogs and discussion groups and newspapers were the preferred mediums of communication across all countries.

The global salt research

An online sample of 6,987 aged 18-65 across the globe – from Germany, Austria, United States, Hungary, India, China, South Africa and Brazil – completed a 15 minute web-based questionnaire during April to May, 2012.

People who had experienced a major health event like a heart attack, stroke, cancer or kidney disease were not able to take part due to their differing reasons for changing their nutrition behaviour.

Source: Journal Appetite
Published online ahead of print, doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2013.07.003  
"Barriers for progress in salt reduction in the general population. An international study."
Authors: RS. Newson et al.


2 comments (Comments are now closed)

Modesty with Salt consumption

Salt is as necessary in our diet as is butter. Both have been the subject of harassment but importance should not be ruled out.

Salt is good for organoleptic reasons and as the requirements of minerals in the body. Lack of salt results in dizziness as well as susceptibility to nausea and symptoms of flue. Excessive salt would make your blood pressure rise rendering you with Hypertension.

Find out from your nutritionist what is the best dosage for you but do not give much attention to Physicians who would scare you out from Salt raising the possibility of other complications i.e. dizziness, muscular fatigue and vulnerability of elevations in atmospheric temperatures in your region of residence.

Report abuse

Posted by Qamrul Khanson
16 October 2013 | 22h232013-10-16T22:23:44Z


If you drink enough water salt will not remain in large concentration. Never has there been a study on how much water someone drinks with the amount of salt they intake.
Asthma and allergies are getting worse as we reduce the amount of salt we intake. 1977 we were told to reduce salt by 1984 asthma and allergies were doubling. During an allergic attack or asthma attack drink 2 glasses of water and put a pinch of Himalayan salt on your tongue. See if I am wrong, but you will feel better.
As you try to scare us from salt you will suffer the repercussion, not me. The only problem is all the people that is dying because of your false reporting or in accuracy. Low salt consumption are more likely to die than high salt intake.

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Posted by Willie
21 September 2013 | 20h432013-09-21T20:43:41Z

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